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Christopher Garcia
Christopher Garcia

Is Yam High In Fat !!TOP!!

Scope: Japanese yam propagules are supposed to have high potential as a functional food. However, there are almost no studies examining their physiological function. This study aims to elucidate the physiological function of Japanese yam propagules that are heated, freeze-dried, and powdered.

is yam high in fat

Methods and results: A high-fat diet with Japanese yam propagules is administered to mice for 4 weeks. High-fat loading induces a decline in respiratory quotient, and a high-fat diet with propagules reduces it more. This result suggests that propagules increase fat oxidation, indicating fat utilization. The hepatic transcriptome is analyzed using a DNA microarray. Some of the genes affected by high-fat loading are reversed by simultaneous ingestion of propagules. Such genes are mainly involved in the immune system and fat metabolism. High-fat loading induces hepatic inflammation, which is repressed by simultaneous ingestion of propagules. For lipid metabolism, propagules repress an increase in cholesterol biosynthesis and catabolism by high-fat loading. Regarding carbohydrate metabolism, propagules decrease glycolysis and glycogen synthesis and increase gluconeogenesis. Moreover, amino acids are converted into pyruvate and then used for gluconeogenesis.

Background and purpose: Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) is a potent medicinal plant exerting therapeutical effects against diseases. However, investigations on the health benefits of its fiber remain limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential of yam bean fiber (YBF) against a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, inflammation, and gut dysbiosis.

Conclusion and implications: YBF at the dose of 10% is proved to be useful in the prevention of diet-induced metabolic diseases, microbiota dysbiosis, and inflammation. Hence, YBF is recommended as a potential natural-based remedy to diminish the detrimental effects of high-fat foods.

Macronutrients consist of carbohydrates, fat and protein. All varieties of potatoes are known as starchy vegetables because they contain a high amount of carbs. Potatoes also have a moderate amount of protein and are virtually fat-free. Yams are slightly higher in carb content. A cup of raw, cubed yams contains 42 grams of carbs and 2 grams of protein. This same serving size of white potatoes contains about 24 grams of carbs and 2.5 grams of protein. The daily recommendation for carbs is 130 grams.

The B vitamins break down macronutrients for energy, and they are also responsible for red blood cell formation and digestion. White potatoes and yams contain moderately high amounts of B-6 and thiamin. A 1-cup serving of white potatoes has .3 milligrams of B-6 and .1 milligrams of thiamin. This same serving size of yams contains .4 milligrams of B-6 and .2 milligrams of thiamin. The recommended daily intake of B-6 is 1.3 milligrams. Men should aim for 1.2 milligrams of thiamin daily, while women should consume 1.1 milligrams. Have a leafy green salad or portion of beans with a yam or baked potato for a meal rich in B vitamins.

Dietary fiber does not get digested when it is consumed, and it creates bulk in the stomach. This gives you a full feeling, which prevents overeating. White potatoes and yams contain generous amounts of fiber, but yams are slightly higher. A 1-cup serving of yams contains 6 grams, while white potatoes have just over 3.5 grams for this same serving size. The recommended daily intake of fiber is 30 to 38 grams for men and 21 to 25 grams for women. Pair white potatoes with beans to increase the fiber content of a meal.

The glycemic index, or GI, of a food determines how fast it raises blood sugar levels in the body. When you consume a high GI food, your pancreas releases insulin in high amounts, which promotes weight gain. Low GI foods gradually raise blood sugar levels and reduce the chances of having peaks and valleys with energy. Foods that rank from 0 to 55 are low, 56 to 69 are moderate and 70 to 100 are high. Yams have a lower GI than white potatoes, but both fall in the low category. An average-sized boiled white potato has a GI of 50, while an average-sized yam ranks at 37. Different preparations will affect the glycemic index. Mashed potatoes, for example, have a considerably higher GI than boiled.

Several animal models are established and suitable for one or more metabolic risk criteria in MS studies (Panchal and Brown [2011]), such as genetic rodent models, including db/db mice, ob/ob mice, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats etc., however, such genetic mutations in established rodent animals are few reported in humans; on the other hand, the diet-induced rodent models may mimic closely to MS symptoms in humans, including fructose-induced, sucrose-induced, and high-fat (HF) diet induced rodent animals (Panchal and Brown [2011]). The HF diets are reported to induce overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and high blood pressures in rodent animals (Agulia and Mandarim-de-Lacerda [2003]; Woods et al. [2003]; Kobayasi et al. [2010]), and are widely used for MS study (Frigolet et al. [2013]).

The present animal experiments showed that the dioscorin interventions at dose of 50 mg/kg daily for five weeks could improve SBP and impaired glucose tolerances, but had no effects on reductions of body weight and fat tissues, of 10-week HF diet-induced obese rats which the improved metabolic risks were involved in MS criteria. The dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates at doses of 40 mg/kg were showed to have antihypertensive activities against spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (Lin et al. [2006]); the dioscorin at doses of 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg showed to lower oxidative stress of BALB/c mice induced by subcutaneous galactose injections (Han et al. [2014b]). The obesity may play the central role in MS which the renin-angiotensin system in dysfunctional adipocytes will initiate inflammation and dyslipidemia, increase blood pressure and decrease insulin sensitivity accompanied with abnormal blood glucose (Frigolet et al. [2013]). Therefore, anti-obesity or prevention against obesity may reduce directly the risks of MS. There were several reports concerning anti-obesity activity from natural resources in rodent models induced by HF diets, such as α-lipoic acid (Kim et al. [2004]), cryptotanshinone from Salvia militorrhiza (Kim et al. [2007]), rutin and o-coumaric acid (Hsu et al. [2009]), honokiol and magnolol (Kim et al. [2013]), pectin pentaoligosaccharide (Li et al. [2013]), high taurine and glycine contents of scallop protein (Tastesen et al. [2014]). The above-mentioned models for HF diet-induced obese studies were generally applied either by HF diet pretreatment for a period of time and then tested sample interventions or co-treatment of HF-diet and tested samples in the same time. The vasorelaxing peptides of Arg-Phe and Ile-His-Arg-Phe derived from rice glutelin protein showed to lower food intakes in rodent models (Kagebayashi et al. [2012]; Kontani et al. [2014]) which maybe have anti-obesity activity. At present, it is not sure that less amounts of dioscorin used with the similar MS preventive activities, or higher amounts of dioscorin used or co-treatments of HF-diet and dioscorin used with anti-obesity activities. Reagan-Shaw et al. ([2007]) suggested to use body surface area normalization for dose translation from animal to human studies. It was calculated that the human equivalent dose was 8.11 mg/kg of human body weight from dioscorin intervention of 50 mg/kg of rat body weight in the present experiment. An adult of 60 kg weigh might have to consume about 490 mg dioscorin/day to achieve benefits of improving MS and need further investigations.

The yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates or synthesized peptides derived from dioscorin had been reported to lower blood pressures using SHR as animal models (Lin et al. [2006]; Liu et al. [2009a],[b]; Lin et al. [2014]). From the present results of Figure 2, dioscorin intervention at least for two weeks showed to lower SBP of HF diet-induced obese rats and comparable to the normal diet fed ones. The dysfunctional adipocytes in obesity will increase circulating renin-angiotensin systems, and the generated angiotensin II from angiotensin I by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolysis resulted in the higher blood pressures (Frigolet et al. [2013]). It was reported that obesity may elevate systemic oxidative stress from overloaded nutrients of HF diets and advanced glycation endproduct generations (Kahn et al. [2006]). Glycation is the non-enzymatic modification of proteins through the reduction of sugars and their metabolized intermediates, such as glyoxal or methylglyoxal, and leads to the irreversible formation of advanced glycation end products (Kikuchi et al. [2003]). The hypertensive rat might increase oxidative stress and methylglyoxal amounts in vascular smooth muscle cells (Wu and Juurlink [2002]). The peptic hydrolysates of dioscorin showed ACE inhibitory activities (Hsu et al. [2002]) and the synthesized peptides derived from pepsin hydrolysates in silico vasorelaxing activities (Lin et al. [2014]). The synthesized peptides derived from pepsin hydrolysates in silico exhibited antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo (Han et al. [2013]; Han et al. [2014a],[c]). It was proposed that the dioscorin intervention showed to lower SBP of HF diet-induced obese rats might be from ACE inhibitory and vasorelaxing activities, and in part from antioxidant and/or antiglycation activities of active peptides after dioscorin ingestions and need further investigations.

Incorporate yams into your main courses and side dishes to increase the size of the meal without adding a significant amount of calories. This is a great way to stretch dishes that may be high in fat or low in fiber, allowing you to eat the same amount but with additional fiber to fill you up faster, making you eat less. As an example, add a cup of sliced baked yams to your favorite meatloaf recipe. This will stretch out the meat, decrease calories, add fiber and provide a subtle flavor that complements that of the other ingredients. 041b061a72


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